NEUROLOGY MILESTONES AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  
1900s    |    1930s    |    1940s   |    1960s   |    1970s   |    1980s   |    1990s   |    2000s   

1900
The Neurological Institute (NI)—the first neurological hospital in the United States dedicated solely to treating diseases of the nervous system—established in 1909.

1930
NI faculty member, Dr. Tracy Putnam, and future NI chairman Dr. H. Houston Merritt discover anticonvulsant diphenylhydantoin (Dilantin).

1940
Drs. K. C. Cole, Howard Curtis, and David Goldman publish groundbreaking studies on mechanisms of membrane excitability.

1945
Drs. K. C. Cole, Howard Curtis, and David Goldman publish groundbreaking studies on mechanisms of membrane excitability.

1968
Dr. Sadek Hilal develops embolization, a way to treat malformations of blood vessels in the brain by injecting substances to occlude them. The innovative technique is the first step in developing the field of interventional radiology.

1975
The Center for Neurobiology and Behavior is established under the leadership of Dr. Eric Kandel.

1988
Drs. Salvatore Di Mauro and Eric Schon, working in the H. Houston Merritt Center for Neuromuscular Research, first link deletions of mitochondrial DNA to a specific clinical syndrome affecting the brain, eyes, and muscles, opening up a new human genetic pattern called maternal inheritance.

1990s
The 1990s heralded many genetic discoveries at Columbia. Dr. Nancy Wexler and her team are the first to map the gene for Huntington's disease. Also, clinical neurogeneticists at Columbia are the first to map genes for spinal muscular atrophy, levodopa-responsive dystonia, Wilson's disease, and a newly-recognized form of familial frontotemporal dementia.

June 1994
A 25-ton donut-shaped magnet for the world's most powerful magnetic resonance imager for human research arrives at Columbia. Its installation follows nine years of research and development by Dr. Sadek K. Hilal, then director of neuroradiology and one of a handful of people considered to be the most influential in advancing imaging science and radiology during the past fifty years.

Oct. 9, 2000
Dr. Eric Kandel, University professor, is informed that he is among three researchers to share the 2000 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Recognized for his pioneering work to understand the molecular basis of memory, Dr. Kandel shared the award with Dr. Arvid Carlsson of the University of Goteborg, Sweden, and Dr. Paul Greengard of Rockefeller University.

NIH awards Morris K. Udall Center for Parkinson's Disease Research to Dr. Stanley Fahn and Columbia. Dr. Fahn is renowned for his work in Parkinson's disease and movement disorders, including codirecting the first controlled surgical trial for fetal tissue transplantation for patients with advanced PD and participating in the development of rating scales for Parkinson's disease, dystonia, tremor, and Huntington's disease.

Columbia establishes the Neural Stem Cell Center to advance the role of cell-replacement therapies for treatment of Parkinson disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease), stroke, and other disorders where the nervous system deteriorates because of injury or disease.

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Program Schedule
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Brain and Mind
Leading neuroscientists gathered at this C250 symposium to discuss the accomplishments and limitations of reductionist and holistic approaches to examining the nervous system and mental functions.

Video Archive
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Highlights
Quotations from the speakers.

Conference Transcript
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Eric Kandel
University Professor Kandel's work on memory and learning earned him the 2000 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

Columbia University Center for Neurobiology and Behavior
Explore the research, teaching, and patient care at CUMC.

Neural Correlates of Consciousness
Event speakers Koch and Kanwisher in The New York Times.

Related Resources
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