"Our findings have been for the most part preliminary, revealing new problems more often than solving old ones."
Dickinson Woodruff Richards, Jr. (1895–1973)
MA 1922, MD 1923
Dickinson Woodruff Richards established a cardiopulmonary laboratory at Bellevue Hospital with André F. Cournand in 1932. Working with a series of collaborators, the two men pioneered the conceptual merger of the heart and lung into a single organ. Their findings revolutionized cardiology and pulmonology, provided the basis for open-heart surgery, and culminated in the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which they shared with the German physician Werner O.T. Forssmann.